Hypnotherapy uses guided relaxation with a trained therapist to achieve a heightened level of focus and concentration to address specific issues or habits. Hypnosis is usually considered an aid to psychotherapy counseling or therapy, because the hypnotic state allows people to explore painful thoughts, feelings, and memories they might have hidden from their conscious minds. In addition, hypnosis enables people to perceive some things differently, enabling patients to overcome addictions or self-destructive behaviors. Hypnotherapy generally is used for either suggestion therapy or analysis. Suggestion therapy relies on the hypnotic state to improve the patient’s ability to respond to suggestions. This is generally utilized when the patient wishes to change problem behaviors such as smoking or drug use, or even as a method for coping with chronic pain. Analysis hypnotherapy utilizes the relaxed state to explore the underlying cause of a disorder or symptom, such as a traumatic event that a patient has blocked from their conscious. Clinical or medical hypnosis is used by professionals trained in medicine, psychology, social work, counseling, nursing, and dentistry. Generally, it is used as an aid to psychotherapist in their treatment sessions.
More content is available with membership.[mepr-login-link] or go to membership page.
[/mepr-show] [mepr-active memberships=”6074, 6072, 6073″]
Conditions & Treatment
The hypnotic state allows a person to be more open to discussion and suggestion. It can improve the success of other treatments for many conditions, including:
-Phobias, fears, and anxiety
-Grief and loss
-Side Effects of Cancer, Chemotherapy, and Radiation
-Surgery and Recovery
Hypnosis is not considered dangerous or hazardous for patients. Hypnotherapy does not cause brain washing or mind control. A therapist cannot make a person do something that the patient doesn’t want to do. The greatest risk, as discussed above, is that false memories can potentially be created and that it may be less effective than pursuing other, more established, and traditional psychiatric treatments.
Hypnosis is performed by a licensed or certified mental health professional who is specially trained in this technique. The readiness and ability of patients to be hypnotized varies considerably and hypnotherapy generally requires several sessions in order to achieve meaningful results. However, the patient can learn the technique of self-hypnosis which can be practiced at home, to reinforce the usefulness of formal sessions with the therapist. This can help counter distress and anxiety-related conditions.
Hypnosis has been in use since the beginning of recorded time. The Ancient Greeks, Chinese, and Egyptians practiced forms of hypnotherapy. The Greek physician Asklepios practiced a form of hypnotic suggestion that, according to records, showed some success. There were other physicians throughout early history whose forms of treatment could be considered hypnotherapy such as the Persian Avicenna at around the end of the first millennium, or the Swiss Paracelsus in the 1500’s. In the mid 1700’s a gentleman by the name of Franz Anton Mesmer became known for his “Mesmer-ization” of patient’s and was eventually discredited thanks in large part to a group of scientists that included Benjamin Franklin.
The current definition of hypnosis is dated from the mid-1800’s who were influenced by the results obtained by Mesmer a half century earlier. This new group of physician eventually eliminated many of Mesmer’s suppositions from their hypothesis and began to label what Mesmer had successfully discovered, the power of suggestion. The inventor of the stethoscope John Ellotson became interested in what was then known as mesmerism. In 1843 a Scottish surgeon named James Braid is credited with creating the term hypnosis in honor of Hypnos the Greek god of sleep. Throughout the 19th century many physicians attempted different forms of hypnotherapy including Sigmund Freud in the 1880’s.
Emil Coue, a French pharmacist, published a book titled Self-Mastery Through Conscious Autosuggestion in 1920. He believed that one should always use positive statements when dealing with the sub-conscious because negative statements are ignored. By the 1930’s interest in hypnotherapy had inspired psychologist Clark Hull to write Hypnosis and Suggestibility. He concluded that hypnosis was not sleep but a trance like state where the patient was susceptible to suggestion and motivation. Hull’s work led to the creation of Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis (SCEH) in 1949. Later, in 1957, a cohort led by Dr. Milton Erickson created the American Society for Clinical Hypnosis (ASCH). Both organizations look to progress the understanding of clinical hypnotherapy. The SCEH through experimental research and the ASCH through advancing the clinical use of hypnosis.
The advancement is technology that has allowed researchers to map the human brain has also allowed the effects of hypnotherapy to be understood more clearly. One of the most important discoveries is that the human brain cannot tell the difference between real events and imaginary ones. If someone receives a hypnotic suggestion their brain reacts as if that suggestion were real. The brain responds to suggestions over time, very similar to the effects of long term mediation practices. With hypnosis the patient is able to harness the power of the mind to improve physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being.
A healing method that is used to create subconscious change in a patient in the form of new responses, thoughts, attitudes, behaviors or feelings. It is undertaken with a subject in hypnosis.
A person who is hypnotized displays certain unusual behavior characteristics and propensities, compared with a non-hypnotized subject, most notably heightened suggestibility and responsiveness.
Definition of a Hypnotherapist
In 1973, Dr. John Kappas, Founder of the Hypnosis Motivation Institute, wrote and defined the profession of a hypnotherapist in the Federal Dictionary of Occupational Titles:
“Induces hypnotic state in client to increase motivation or alter behavior patterns: Consults with client to determine nature of problem. Prepares client to enter hypnotic state by explaining how hypnosis works and what client will experience. Tests subject to determine degree of physical and emotional suggestibility. Induces hypnotic state in client, using individualized methods and techniques of hypnosis based on interpretation of test results and analysis of client’s problem. May train client in self-hypnosis conditioning.”
The form of hypnotherapy practiced by most Victorian hypnotists, including James Braid and Hippolyte Bernheim, mainly employed direct suggestion of symptom removal, with some use of therapeutic relaxation and occasionally aversion to alcohol, drugs, etc.
In the 1950’s, Milton H. Erickson developed a radically different approach to hypnotism, which has subsequently become known as “Ericksonian hypnotherapy” or “Neo-Ericksonian hypnotherapy.” Erickson made use of an informal conversational approach with many clients and complex language patterns, and therapeutic strategies. This divergence from tradition led some of his colleagues, including Andre Weitzenhoffer, to dispute whether Erickson was right to label his approach “hypnosis” at all.
The founders of Neuro-linguistic Programming (NLP), a methodology similar in some regards to hypnotism, claimed that they had modeled the work of Erickson extensively and assimilated it into their approach. Weitzenhoffer disputed whether NLP bears any genuine resemblance to Erickson’s work.
Cognitive behavioral hypnotherapy (CBH) is an integrated psychological therapy employing clinical hypnosis and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). The use of CBT in conjunction with hypnotherapy may result in greater treatment effectiveness. A meta-analysis of eight different researches revealed “a 70% greater improvement” for patients undergoing an integrated treatment to those using CBT only.
In 1974, Theodore Barber and his colleagues published an influential review of the research which argued, following the earlier social psychology of Theodore R. Sarbin, that hypnotism was better understood not as a “special state” but as the result of normal psychological variables, such as active imagination, expectation, appropriate attitudes, and motivation. Barber introduced the term “cognitive-behavioral” to describe the nonstate theory of hypnotism, and discussed its application to behavior therapy.
The growing application of cognitive and behavioral psychological theories and concepts to the explanation of hypnosis paved the way for a closer integration of hypnotherapy with various cognitive and behavioral therapies. However, many cognitive and behavioral therapies were themselves originally influenced by older hypnotherapy techniques, e.g., the systematic desensitization of Joseph Wolpe, the cardinal technique of early behavior therapy, was originally called “hypnotic desensitization” and derived from the Medical Hypnosis (1948) of Lewis Wolberg.
Curative hypnotherapy is a method of working purely with the subconscious mind to understand and correct specific details which have played a part in the initial creation of a symptom. Its application relies heavily on Specific Questioning of the subconscious and the use of Ideomotor phenomenon (IMR) to identify the precise and unique life experiences which then led on to a triggering of a symptom at some later date.
William Benjamin Carpenter (1813 – 1885), was an English physician and physiologist who first used the term ‘ideo-motor response’ in the 1840s having realised that these movements occurred outside of a person’s conscious awareness.
Pierre Janet (1859-1947) work was generally eclipsed by the international acceptance of the vast theoretical framework of the workings of the unconscious mind by Sigmund Freud. However he was a meticulous researcher who made a number of serious contributions to hypnotherapy.
Janet found that if a hysterical patient was sufficiently distracted by another person engaging the patient in conversation then he could whisper questions, which were answered by the part of the mind responsible for the hysteria via automatic writing. Thus his understanding of the need for Conscious Distraction in order to gain Subconscious information via Ideo-Motor Response is clear.
Janet coined the term ‘subconscious’ to describe this part of the mind. He demonstrated that hysterical or psychosomatic symptoms could be cured by gaining a different understanding of subconscious information. Janet was one of the first people to make a connection between a person’s past experiences and their present-day difficulties and was the first to explore the idea that “trifling” events (rather than traumatic ones) can cause serious problems.
David Cheek (1912-1996) is seen by many as an important character in providing the tools which eventually led to the formation of more analytical applications of hypnosis, as opposed to the more common suggestion-based treatment.
David Lesser (1928 – 2001) was the originator of what we today understand by the term Curative Hypnotherapy. It was he who first saw the possibility of finding the causes of people’s symptoms by using a combination of hypnosis, IMR and a method of specific questioning that he began to explore. Rather than try to override the subconscious information as Janet had done, he realized the necessity, and developed the process to correct the wrong information. Lesser’s understanding of the logicality and simplicity of the subconscious led to the creation of the methodical treatment used today and it is his innovative work and understanding that underpins the therapy and is why the term ‘Lesserian’ was coined and trademarked. As the understanding of the workings of the subconscious continues to evolve, the application of the therapy continues to change. The three most influential changes have been in Specific Questioning (1992) to gain more accurate subconscious information; a subconscious cause/effect mapping system (SRBC)(1996) to streamline the process of curative hypnotherapy treatment; and the ‘LBR Criteria’ (2003) to be able to differentiate easier between causal and trigger events and helping to target more accurately the erroneous data which requires reinterpretation.
In 1892, the British Medical Association (BMA) commissioned a team of doctors to undertake an evaluation of the nature and effects of hypnotherapy:
The Committee, having completed such investigation of hypnotism as time permitted, have to report that they have satisfied themselves of the genuineness of the hypnotic state. The Committee are of opinion that as a therapeutic agent hypnotism is frequently effective in relieving pain, procuring sleep, and alleviating many functional ailments (i.e., psycho-somatic complaints and anxiety disorders).
In 1955, the Psychological Medicine Group of the BMA commissioned a Subcommittee, led by Prof. T. Ferguson Rodger, to deliver a second, and more comprehensive, report on hypnosis. The Subcommittee consulted several experts on hypnosis from various fields, including the eminent neurologist Prof. W. Russell Brain, the 1st Baron Brain, and the psychoanalyst Wilfred Bion. After two years of study and research, its final report was published in the British Medical Journal (BMJ), under the title ‘Medical use of Hypnotism’. The terms of reference were:
“To consider the uses of hypnotism, its relation to medical practice in the present day, the advisability of giving encouragement to research into its nature and application, and the lines upon which such research might be organized.“
It concludes from a systematic review of available research that, “The Subcommittee is satisfied after consideration of the available evidence that hypnotism is of value and may be the treatment of choice in some cases of so-called psycho-somatic disorder and Psychoneurosis. It may also be of value for revealing unrecognized motives and conflicts in such conditions. As a treatment, in the opinion of the Subcommittee it has proved its ability to remove symptoms and to alter morbid habits of thought and behavior…In addition to the treatment of psychiatric disabilities, there is a place for hypnotism in the production of anesthesia or analgesia for surgical and dental operations, and in suitable subjects it is an effective method of relieving pain in childbirth without altering the normal course of labor.“
According to a statement of proceedings published elsewhere in the same edition of the BMJ, the report was officially ‘approved at last week’s Council meeting of the British Medical Association.’ In other words, it was approved as official BMA policy. This statement goes on to say that,
“For the past hundred years there has been an abundance of evidence that psychological and physiological changes could be produced by hypnotism which were worth study on their own account, and also that such changes might be of great service in the treatment of patients.”
In 1958, the American Medical Association (AMA) commissioned a similar (though more terse) report which endorses the 1955 BMA report and concludes,
“That the use of hypnosis has a recognized place in the medical armamentarium and is a useful technique in the treatment of certain illnesses when employed by qualified medical and dental personnel.”
Again, the AMA council approved this report rendering hypnotherapy an orthodox treatment,
“The Reference Committee on Hygiene, Public Health, and Industrial Health approved the report and commended the Council on Mental Health for its work. The House of Delegates adopted the Reference Committee report.”
In 1995, the US National Institutes of Health (NIH), established a Technology Assessment Conference that compiled an official statement entitled “Integration of Behavioral & Relaxation Approaches into the Treatment of Chronic Pain & Insomnia”. This is an extensive report that includes a statement on the existing research in relation to hypnotherapy for chronic pain. It concludes that:
“The evidence supporting the effectiveness of hypnosis in alleviating chronic pain associated with cancer seems strong. In addition, the panel was presented with other data suggesting the effectiveness of hypnosis in other chronic pain conditions, which include irritable bowel syndrome, oral mucositis (pain and swelling of the mucous membrane), temporo-mandibular disorders (jaw pain), and tension headaches” (NIH, 1995).
In 1999, the British Medical Journal (BMJ) published a Clinical Review of current medical research on hypnotherapy and relaxation therapies, it concludes,
- “There is strong evidence from randomized trials of the effectiveness of hypnosis and relaxation for cancer related anxiety, pain, nausea, and vomiting, [side effects of chemotherapy] particularly in children.”
- “They are also effective for panic disorders and insomnia, particularly when integrated into a package of cognitive therapy (including, for example, sleep hygiene).”
- “A systematic review has found that hypnosis enhances the effects of cognitive behavioral therapy for conditions such as phobia, obesity, and anxiety.”
- “Randomized controlled trials support the use of various relaxation techniques for treating both acute and chronic pain.”
- “Randomized trials have shown hypnosis to be of value in asthma and in irritable bowel syndrome.”
- “Some practitioners also claim that relaxation techniques, particularly the use of imagery, can prolong life. There is currently insufficient evidence to support this claim.”
In 2001, the Professional Affairs Board of the British Psychological Society (BPS) commissioned a working party of expert psychologists to publish a report entitled The Nature of Hypnosis. Its remit was ‘to provide a considered statement about hypnosis and important issues concerning its application and practice in a range of contexts, notably for clinical purposes, forensic investigation, academic research, entertainment and training.’ The report provides a concise summary of the current scientific research on hypnosis. It opens with the following introductory remark:
“Hypnosis is a valid subject for scientific study and research and a proven therapeutic medium.”
With regard to the therapeutic uses of hypnosis, the report said:
“Enough studies have now accumulated to suggest that the inclusion of hypnotic procedures may be beneficial in the management and treatment of a wide range of conditions and problems encountered in the practice of medicine, psychiatry and psychotherapy.”
The working party then provided an overview of some of the most important contemporary research on the efficacy of clinical hypnotherapy, which is summarized as follows:
- “There is convincing evidence that hypnotic procedures are effective in the management and relief of both acute and chronic pain and in assisting in the alleviation of pain, discomfort and distress due to medical and dental procedures and childbirth.”
- “Hypnosis and the practice of self-hypnosis may significantly reduce general anxiety, tension and stress in a manner similar to other relaxation and self-regulation procedures.”
- “Likewise, hypnotic treatment may assist in insomnia in the same way as other relaxation methods.”
- “There is encouraging evidence demonstrating the beneficial effects of hypnotherapeutic procedures in alleviating the symptoms of a range of complaints that fall under the heading ‘psychosomatic illness.” These include tension headaches and migraine; asthma; gastro-intestinal complaints such as irritable bowel syndrome; warts; and possibly other skin complaints such as eczema, psoriasis and urticaria hives.
- “There is evidence from several studies that its [hypnosis’] inclusion in a weight reduction program may significantly enhance outcome.”
In 2003, a meta-analysis of the efficacy of hypnotherapy was published by two researchers from the university of Konstanz in Germany, Flammer and Bongartz. The study examined data on the efficacy of hypnotherapy across the board, though studies included mainly related to psychosomatic illness, test anxiety, smoking cessation and pain control during orthodox medical treatment. Most of the better research studies used traditional-style hypnosis, only a minority (19%) employed Ericksonian hypnosis.
The authors considered a total of 444 studies on hypnotherapy published prior to 2002. By selecting the best quality and most suitable research designs for meta-analysis they narrowed their focus down to 57 controlled trials. These showed that on average hypnotherapy achieved at least 64% success compared to 37% improvement among untreated control groups. (Based on the figures produced by binomial effect size display or BESD.)
According to the authors this was an intentional underestimation. Their professed aim was to discover whether, even under the most skeptical weighing of the evidence, hypnotherapy was still proven effective. They showed conclusively that it was. In fact, their analysis of treatment designs concluded that expansion of the meta-analysis to include non-randomized trials for this data base would also produce reliable results. When all 133 studies deemed suitable in light of this consideration were re-analyzed, providing data for over 6,000 patients, the findings suggest an average improvement in 27% of untreated patients over the term of the studies compared with a 74% success rate among those receiving hypnotherapy. This is a high success rate given the fact that many of the studies measured included the treatment of addictions and medical conditions. The outcome rates for anxiety disorders alone, traditionally hypnotherapy’s strongest application, were higher still.
In 2005, a meta-analysis by the Cochrane Collaboration found no evidence that hypnotherapy was more successful than other treatments or no treatment in achieving cessation of smoking for at least six months. In 2007 a meta-analysis from the Cochrane Collaboration found that the therapeutic effect of hypnotherapy was “superior to that of a waiting list control or usual medical management, for abdominal pain and composite primary IBS symptoms, in the short term in patients who fail standard medical therapy”, with no harmful side-effects. However the authors noted that the quality of data available was inadequate to draw any firm conclusions.
In 2016, a literature review published in La Presse Medicale found that there is not sufficient evidence to “support the efficacy of hypnosis in chronic anxiety disorders.”
United States definition of hypnotherapist
The U.S. (Department of Labor) Directory of Occupational Titles provides the following definition:
- “Hypnotherapist – Induces hypnotic state in client to increase motivation or alter behavior pattern through hypnosis. Consults with client to determine the nature of problem. Prepares client to enter hypnotic states by explaining how hypnosis works and what client will experience. Tests subject to determine degrees of physical and emotional suggestibility. Induces hypnotic state in client using individualized methods and techniques of hypnosis based on interpretation of test results and analysis of client’s problem. May train client in self-hypnosis conditioning.”
UK National Occupational Standards
In 2002, the Department for Education and Skills developed National Occupational Standards for hypnotherapy linked to National Vocational Qualifications based on the then National Qualifications Framework under the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority. NCFE, a national awarding body, issues level four national vocational qualification diploma in hypnotherapy. Currently AIM Awards offers a Level 3 Certificate in Hypnotherapy and Counselling Skills at level 3 of the Regulated Qualifications Framework.
UK Confederation of Hypnotherapy Organisations (UKCHO)
The regulation of the hypnotherapy profession in the UK is at present the main focus of UKCHO, a non-profit umbrella body for hypnotherapy organisations. Founded in 1998 to provide a non-political arena to discuss and implement changes to the profession of hypnotherapy, UKCHO currently represents 9 of the UK’s professional hypnotherapy organisations and has developed standards of training for hypnotherapists, along with codes of conduct and practice that all UKCHO registered hypnotherapists are governed by. As a step towards the regulation of the profession, UKCHO’s website now includes a National Public Register of Hypnotherapists who have been registered by UKCHO’s Member Organisations and are therefore subject to UKCHO’s professional standards. Further steps to full regulation of the hypnotherapy profession will be taken in consultation with the Prince’s Foundation for Integrated Health.
Professional hypnotherapy and use of the occupational titles hypnotherapist or clinical hypnotherapist is not government-regulated in Australia.
In 1996, as a result of a three-year research project led by Lindsay B. Yeates, the Australian Hypnotherapists’ Association (founded in 1949), the oldest hypnotism-oriented professional organization in Australia, instituted a peer-group accreditation system for full-time Australian professional hypnotherapists, the first of its kind in the world, which “accredit[ed] specific individuals on the basis of their actual demonstrated knowledge and clinical performance; instead of approving particular ‘courses’ or approving particular ‘teaching institutions'” (Yeates, 1996, p.iv; 1999, p.xiv). The system was further revised in 1999.
Australian hypnotism/hypnotherapy organizations (including the Australian Hypnotherapists Association) are seeking government regulation similar to other mental health professions. However, the various tiers of Australian government have shown consistently over the last two decades that they are opposed to government legislation and in favour of self-regulation by industry groups.
- Atavistic regression
- Astral projection
- Autogenic training
- Doctor of Clinical Hypnotherapy
- Hypnotherapy in the United Kingdom
- Indian board of clinical hypnotherapy
- The Pregnant Man and Other Cases From a Hypnotherapist’s Couch
- Subconscious mind
- The Zoist: A Journal of Cerebral Physiology & Mesmerism, and Their Applications to Human Welfare
|Library resources about
- “What is Hypnotherapy and How Does it Differ From Hypnosis?”. Hypnos.info. 2007-07-22. Retrieved 2011-11-28.
- “Dictionary of Occupational Titles: Hypnotherapist (079.157-010)”. Occupationalinfo.org. Retrieved 2011-11-28.
- Kraft T & Kraft D ‘Covert Sensitization Revisited: Six Case Studies’ Contemporary Hypnosis (2005), 22, (4): 202-209
- Weitzenhoffer, A. (2000). The Practice of Hypnotism.
- John Grinder & Richard Bandler (1976) Patterns of the Hypnotic Techniques of Milton H.Erickson: Volume 1 ISBN 1-55552-052-9
- Gorton, Gregg E (2005). Milton Hyland Erickson The American Journal of Psychiatry. Washington. Vol.162, Iss. 7; pg. 1255, 1 pgs
- Robertson, D (2012). The Practice of Cognitive-Behavioural Hypnotherapy: A Manual for Evidence-Based Clinical Hypnosis. London: Karnac. ISBN 978-1855755307.
- Kirsch, I.; Montgomery, G.; Sapperstein, G. (April 1995). “Hypnosis as an adjunct to cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy: A meta analysis”. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 63 (2): 214–220. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.63.2.214. PMID 7751482.
- Barber, T. X.; Spanos, N. P.; Chaves, J. F. (1974). Hypnotism: Imagination & Human Potentialities. Pergamon Press.
- Bryant, Richard A.; Moulds, Michelle L.; Guthrie, Rachelretgretgrgrwfg M.; Nixon, Reginald D. V. (2005). “The additive benefit of hypnosis and Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy in treating Acute Stress Disorder” (PDF). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 73 (2): 334–340. doi:10.1037/0022-006x.73.2.334. PMID 15796641.
- Weitsenhoffer, A. (1972). “Behavior therapeutic techniques and hypnotherapeutic methods”. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis. 15 (2): 71–82. doi:10.1080/00029157.1972.10402222. PMID 4679810.
- Wolpe, Joseph (1958). Psychotherapy by Reciprocal Inhibition. p. 203. ISBN 978-0804705097.
- Wolberg, Lewis Robert (1948). Medical hypnosis, Volume 2.
- Lesser, David (1985). Hypnotherapy Explained (1 ed.). Birmingham: Curative Hypnotherapy Examination Committee. p. 160. ISBN 0951087517.
- Ratcliffe, Mary (2010). What If It Really Is? (1 ed.). Guildford: Grosvenor House Publishing Ltd. p. 174. ISBN 9781907211454.
- Lesser, David (1989). Book of Hypnosis (1 ed.). CHEC. p. 143. ISBN 0951087525.
- Brody, Jane (4 November 2008). “”The Possibilities in hypnosis, where the patient has the power””. The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-11-28.
- Mendoza, M. E.; Capafons, A. (2009). “Efficacy of clinical hypnosis: A summary of its empirical evidence” (PDF). Papeles del Psicólogo. 30 (2): 98–116.
- Barabasz, Marianne (2012). “Cognitive Hypnotherapy with Bulimia”. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis. 54 (4): 353–64. doi:10.1080/00029157.2012.658122. PMID 22655335.
- Savage, G.H, The Harveian Oration on Experimental Psychology and Hypnotism Delivered before the Royal College of Physicians of London, October 18, 1909, Henry Frowde, (London), 1909.
- Crimlisk, Helen L.; Ron, Maria A. (1999). “Conversion hysteria: History, diagnostic issues, and clinical practice”. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry. 4 (3): 165–180. doi:10.1080/135468099395909.
- Mathur, S.; Khan, W. (October 2011). “Impact of Hypnotherapy on examination anxiety and scholastic performance among school children” (PDF). Delhi Psychiatry Journal. 14 (2): 337–342.
- Mirzamani, S.M.; Bahrami, H.; Moghtaderi, S.; Namegh, M. (November 2012). “The effectiveness of hypnotherapy in treating depression, anxiety and sleep disturbance caused by subjective tinnitus”. Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 14 (9): 76–79.
- Crawford, Helen J.; Barabasz, Arreed F. (1993). “Phobias and intense fears: Facilitating their treatment with hypnosis”. In Rhue, Judith W.; Lynn, Steven Jay; Kirsch, Irving. Handbook of clinical hypnosis. Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association. pp. 311–337. doi:10.1037/10274-015.
- Gow, M.A. (2006). “Hypnosis with a 31-year-old female with dental phobia requiring emergency extraction” (PDF). Contemporary Hypnosis. 23 (2): 83–91. doi:10.1002/ch.312.
- The Pregnant Man: Tales from a Hypnotherapist’s Couch. Deirdre Barrett NY: Times Books/Random House, 1998/hardback, 1999 paper. Books.google.com. 1998. ISBN 9780812929058. Retrieved 2011-11-28.
- “Hypnosis as an addiction treatment”. Alcohol Rehab Thailand.
- Diamond, S.G.; Davis, O.C.; Schaechter, J.D.; Howe, R.D. (2006). “Hypnosis for rehabilitation after stroke: Six case studies” (PDF). Contemporary Hypnosis. 23 (4): 173–180. doi:10.1002/ch.319.
- Cramer H, Lauche R, Paul A, Langhorst J, Kümmel S, Dobos GJ (September 2014). “Hypnosis in Breast Cancer Care: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials”. Integrative Cancer Therapies (review). 14 (1): 5–15. doi:10.1177/1534735414550035. PMID 25233905.
- Palsson, O.S. “Effects of hypnosis on GI problems” (PDF). UNCCenter for Functional GI & Motility Disorders.
- Tan, Gabriel; Hammond, D. Corydon; Gurrala, Joseph (2005). “Hypnosis and irritable bowel syndrome: a review of efficacy and mechanism of action”. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis. 47 (3): 161–178. doi:10.1080/00029157.2005.10401481. PMID 15754863.
- Whorwell, P.J. (2005). “The history of hypnotherapy and its role in the irritable bowel syndrome” (PDF). Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 22 (11–12): 1061–1067. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2005.02697.x.
- Needham, F.; Outterson, T. (July 23, 1892). “Report of the committee appointed to investigate the nature of the phenomena of hypnotism”. British Medical Journal. 2 (1647): 190–1.
- “BMA Council Proceedings”. BMJ. 1 (4920): 1019–1021. April 23, 1955. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.4920.1019. PMC . PMID 20788428.
- Kennedy, Alexander (June 8, 1957). “The Medical Use of Hypnotism”. British Medical Journal. 1 (5031): 1317–1319. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.5031.1317. PMC . PMID 13426615.
- AMA Proceedings, JAMA, September 1958, p. 57
- Vickers, V.; Zollman, Z. (1999). “Hypnosis and relaxation therapies”. British Medical Journal. 319 (7221): 1346–1349. doi:10.1136/bmj.319.7221.1346. PMC . PMID 10567143.
- “The Nature of Hypnosis”. The British Psychological Society. March 2001. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- Flammer; Bongartz (2003). “On the efficacy of hypnosis: a meta-analytic study.” (PDF). Contemporary Hypnosis: 179–197.
- Abbot NC, Stead LF, White AR, Barnes J. Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD001008. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001008
- Webb AN, Kukuruzovic R, Catto-Smith AG, Sawyer SM. Hypnotherapy for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD005110. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005110.pub2
- Pelissolo, A (2016). “[Hypnosis for anxiety and phobic disorders: A review of clinical studies]”. Presse Med. 45 (3): 284–90. doi:10.1016/j.lpm.2015.12.002. PMID 26944812.
- National Occupational Standards for hypnotherapy http://www.rebhp.org/articles/Hypnotherapy.pdf
- “Register of Regulated Qualifications”. Ofqual. Retrieved 6 November 2016.
- Harry Cannon – firstname.lastname@example.org (2010-12-01). “UKCHO Register search page – The UK Confederation of Hypnotherapy Organisations”. Ukcho.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-11-28.
- The accreditation criteria and the structure of the accreditation system were based on those described in Yeates, Lindsay B., A Set of Competency and Proficiency Standards for Australian Professional Clinical Hypnotherapists: A Descriptive Guide to the Australian Hypnotherapists’ Association Accreditation System, Australian Hypnotherapists’ Association, (Sydney), 1996. ISBN 0-646-27250-0
- The revised criteria, etc. are described in Yeates, Lindsay B., A Set of Competency and Proficiency Standards for Australian Professional Clinical Hypnotherapists: A Descriptive Guide to the Australian Hypnotherapists’ Association Accreditation System (Second, Revised Edition), Australian Hypnotherapists’ Association, (Sydney), 1999. ISBN 0-9577694-0-7.
- For example, see Media Release 89/70: issued on 12/4/1989, by Peter Collins — who was, at the time, the NSW State Government Minister for Health — which announced that the N.S.W. Government had made “a decision not to proceed with plans to place controls on Hypnosis and to ban Stage Hypnosis”. Also, see Dewsbury, R., “Reversal by Govt over hypnotists”, The Sydney Morning Herald, (Thursday, 13 April 1989), p.8.